X

Class-X English Reader 

(Main Course ) 

Lesson-1 

The Happy Prince 
(First four paragraphs in red are transcription of the concerned paras.)

[The Happy Prince was a beautiful statue. He was covered with gold. He had sapphires for eyes, and a ruby in his sword. Why did he want to part with all the gold and the precious stones that he had ?]
1. High above the city, on a tall column, stood the statue of the Happy Prince. He was gilded all over with thin leaves of fine gold ; for eyes he had two bright sapphires, and a large red ruby glowed on his sword hilt.

haɪ əˈbʌv ðə ˈsɪtiɒn ə tɔːl ˈkɒləmstʊd ðə ˈstætjuː ɒv ðəˈhæpi prɪnshiː wɒz ˈgɪldɪd ɔːl ˈəʊvə wɪð θɪn liːvz ɒv faɪngəʊld ; fɔːaɪz hiː hæd tuː braɪt ˈsæfaɪəzænd ə lɑːʤrɛd ˈruːbi gləʊd ɒn hɪz sɔːd hɪlt

One night there flew over the city a little Swallow. His friends had gone away to Egypt six weeks before, but he had stayed behind ; then he decided to go to Egypt too.

wʌn naɪt ðeə fluː ˈəʊvə ðə ˈsɪti ə ˈlɪtl ˈswɒləʊhɪz frɛndzhæd gɒn əˈweɪ tuː ˈiːʤɪpt sɪks wiːks bɪˈfɔːbʌt hiː hædsteɪd bɪˈhaɪnd ; ðɛn hiː dɪˈsaɪdɪd tuː gəʊ tuː ˈiːʤɪpt tuː

All day long he flew, and at night time he arrived at the city. “Where shall I put up ?” he said, “I hope the town has made preparations.”

ɔːl deɪ lɒŋ hiː fluːænd æt naɪt taɪm hiː əˈraɪvd æt ðəˈsɪti. “weə ʃæl  pʊt ʌp ?” hiː sɛd, “ həʊp ðə taʊn hæzmeɪd ˌprɛpəˈreɪʃənz.” 

Then he saw the statue on the tall column. “I will put up there”, he cried. “It is a fine position with plenty of fresh air.” So he alighted just between the feet of the Happy Prince.

ðɛn hiː sɔː ðə ˈstætjuː ɒn ðə tɔːl ˈkɒləm. “ wɪl pʊt ʌpðeə”, hiː kraɪd. “ɪt ɪz ə faɪn pəˈzɪʃən wɪð ˈplɛnti ɒv frɛʃ.” səʊ hiː əˈlaɪtɪd ʤʌst bɪˈtwiːn ðə fiːt ɒv ðə ˈhæpiprɪns.

2. “I have a golden bedroom”, he said softly to himself as he looked around, and he prepared to go to sleep ; but just as he was putting his head under his wing a large drop of water fell on him. “What a curious thing !” he cried “There is not a single cloud in the sky, the stars are quite clear and bright, and yet it is raining.”
Then another drop fell. “What is the use of a statue if it cannot keep the rain off ?” he said. “I must look for a good chimney pot”, and he determined to fly away.
But before he had opened his wings, a third drop fell, and he looked up, and saw Ah ! What did he see ?
The eyes of the Happy Prince were filled with tears, and tears were running down his golden cheeks. His face was so beautiful in the moonlight that the little Swallow was filled with pity.
“Who are you ?” he said. “I am the Happy Prince.” “Why are you weeping then ?” asked the Swallow. “You have quite drenched me.”
“When I was alive and had a human heart,” answered the statue, I did not know what tears were, for I lived in the Palace, where sorrow is not allowed to enter. My courtiers called me the Happy Prince, and happy indeed I was. So I lived, and so I died. And now that I am dead they have set me up here so high that I can see the ugliness and all the misery of my city, and though my heart is made of lead yet I cannot choose but weep.”
“What ! Is he not solid gold ?” said the Swallow to himself. He was too polite to make any personal remarks.
3. “Far away,” continued the statue in a low musical voice, “far away in a little street there is a poor house. One of the windows is open, and through it I can see a woman seated at a table. Her face is thin and worn, and she has coarse, red hands, all pricked by the needle, for she is a seamstress. She is embroidering flowers on a satin gown for the loveliest of the Queen’s maids of honour, to wear at the next Court ball. In a bed in the corner of the room her little boy is lying ill. He has fever, and is asking his mother to give him oranges. His mother has nothing to give him but river water, so he is crying. Swallow, little Swallow, will you not bring her the ruby out of my sword hilt ? My feet are fastened to this pedestal and I cannot move.”
“I am waited for in Egypt,” said the Swallow. “My friends are flying up and down the Nile, and talking to the lotus flowers. Soon they will go to sleep.”
The prince asked the Swallow to stay with him for one night and be his messenger. “The boy is so thirsty, and the mother so sad,” he said.
“I don’t think I like boys,” answered the Swallow. “I want to go to Egypt.”
But the Happy Prince looked so sad that the little Swallow was sorry. “It is very cold here,” he said. But he agreed to stay with him for one night and be his messenger.
“Thank you, little Swallow,” said the Prince. The Swallow picked out the great ruby from the Prince’s sword, and flew away with it in his beak over the roofs of the town.
4. He passed by the cathedral tower, where the white marble angels were sculptured. He passed by the palace and heard the sound of dancing. A beautiful girl came out on the balcony with her lover.
“I hope my dress will be ready in time for the State ball,” she said. “I have ordered flowers to be embroidered on it, but the seamstresses are so lazy.”
He passed over the river, and saw the lanterns hanging on the masts of the ships. At last he came to the poor house and looked in. The boy was tossing feverishly on his bed, and the mother had fallen asleep, she was so tired. In he hopped, and laid the great ruby on the table beside the woman’s thimble. Then he flew gently round the bed, fanning the boy’s forehead with his wings. “How cool I feel!”, said the boy, “I must be getting better” ; and he sank into a delicious slumber.
Then the Swallow flew back to the Happy Prince, and told him what he had done. “It is curious” he remarked, “but I feel quite warm now, although it is so cold.”
5. “That is because you have done a good action,” said the Prince. And the little Swallow began to think, and then fell asleep. Thinking always made him sleepy.
When the moon rose, he flew back to the Happy Prince. “Have you any commissions for Egypt ?” he cried. “I am just starting.”
“Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,” said the Prince, “will you stay with me one night longer ?”
“I am waited for in Egypt,” answered the Swallow.
6. “Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,” said the Prince, “far away across the city I see a young man in a garret. He is leaning over a desk covered with papers, and in the glass by his side here is a bunch of withered violets. His hair is brown and crisp and his lips are red as a pomegranate, and he has large and dreamy eyes. He is trying to finish a play for the Director of the Theatre, but he is too cold to write any more. There is no fire in the grate, and hunger has made him faint.”
“I will wait with you one night longer,” said the Swallow, who really had a good heart. He asked if he should take another ruby to the young playwright.
7. “Alas ! I have no ruby now,” said the Prince. “My eyes are all that I have left. They are made of rare sapphires, which were brought out of India a thousand years ago.” He ordered the Swallow to pluck out one of them and take it to the playwright. ‘He will sell it to the jeweller, and buy firewood, and finish his play,” he said.
“Dear Prince,” said the Swallow, “I cannot do that,” and he began to weep.
“Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,” said the Prince, “do as I command you.”
So the Swallow plucked out the Prince’s eye, and flew away to the student’s garret. It was easy enough to get in, as there was a hole in the roof. Through this he darted, and came into the room. The young man had his head buried in his hands, so he did not hear the flutter of the bird’s wings, and when he looked up, he found the beautiful sapphire lying on the withered violets.
“I am beginning to be appreciated,” he cried. “This is from some great admirer. Now I can finish my play,” and he looked quite happy.
8. The next day the Swallow flew down on the harbour. He sat on the mast of a large vessel and watched the sailors working. “I am going to Egypt,” cried the Swallow, but nobody minded, and when the moon rose he flew back to the Happy Prince.
“I have come to bid you goodbye,” he cried. “Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,” said the Prince, “will you not stay with me one night longer ?”
“It is winter,” answered the Swallow,” and the snow will soon be here. In Egypt the sun is warm on the green palm trees, and the crocodiles lie in the mud and look lazily about them.”
“In the square below,” said the Happy Prince, “there stands a little match girl. She has let her matches fall in the gutter, and they are all spoiled. Her father will beat her if she does not bring home some money, and she is crying. She has no shoes or stocking, and her little head is bare. Pluck out my other eye, and give it to her, and her father will not beat her.”
“I will stay with you one night longer”, said the Swallow, “but I cannot pluck out your eye. You would be quite blind then.” “Swallow, Swallow, little Swallow,” said the Prince, “do as I command you.”
So he plucked out the Prince’s other eye, and darted down
with it. He swooped past the match girl, and slipped the jewel into the palm of her hand.
“What a lovely bit of glass !” cried the little girl ; and she ran home, laughing.
9. Then the Swallow came back to the Prince. “You are blind now,” he said “so I will stay with you always.”
“No, little Swallow,” said the poor Prince, “you must go away to Egypt.”
“No, I will stay with you always,” said the Swallow, and he slept at the Prince’s feet.
All the next day he sat on the Prince’s shoulder, and told him stories of what he had seen in strange lands.
10. “Dear little Swallow,” said the Prince,” You tell me of marvellous things, but more marvellous than anything is the suffering of men and of women. There is no Mystery so great as Misery. Fly over my city, little Swallow, and tell me what you see there.”
So the Swallow flew over the great city, and saw the rich making merry in their beautiful houses, while the beggars were sitting at the gates. He flew into dark lanes, and saw the white faces of starving children looking out listlessly at the black streets. Under the archway of the bridge two little boys were lying in each other’s arms to try and keep themselves warm. “How hungry we are !” they said. “You must not lie here,” shouted the watchman, and they wandered out into the rain.
Then he flew back and told the Prince what he had seen. “I am covered with fine gold,” said the Prince. “You must take it off leaf by leaf, and give it to the poor ; the living always think that gold can make them happy.”
Leaf after leaf of the fine gold the Swallow picked off, till the happy Prince looked quite dull and grey. Leaf after leaf of the fine gold he brought to the poor, and the children’s faces grew rosier, and they laughed and played in the street. “We have bread now !” they cried.
Then the snow came, and after the snow came the frost. The streets looked as if they were made of silver. Everybody went about in furs, and the little boys wore scarlet caps and skated on the ice.
11. The poor little Swallow grew colder and colder, but he would not leave the Prince, he loved him too well. He picked up crumbs outside the baker’s door when the baker was not looking, and tried to keep himself warm by flapping his wings.
But at last he knew that he was going to die. He had just enough strength to fly up to the Prince’s shoulder once more. “Goodbye, dear Prince !” he murmured, “Will you let me kiss your hand ?”
“I am glad that you are going to Egypt at last, little Swallow,” said the Prince. “You have stayed too long here but you must kiss me on the lips, for I love you.”
“It is not to Egypt that I am going,” said the Swallow. “I am going to the House of Death. Death is the brother of sleep, is he not ?”
And he kissed the Happy Prince on the lips, and fell down dead at his feet.
12. At that moment a curious crack sounded inside the statue, as if something had broken. The fact is that the leaden heart had snapped right in two. It certainly was dreadfully hard frost.
13. Early the next morning the Mayor was walking in the square below in company with the Town Councillors. As they passed the column he looked up at the statue. “Dear me ! How shabby the Happy Prince looks !” he said.
“How shabby, indeed !” cried the Town Concillors, who always agreed with the Mayor and they went up to look at it.
“The ruby has fallen out of his sword, his eyes are gone, and he is golden no longer,” said the Mayor, “in fact, he is little better than a beggar !”
“Little better than the beggar,” said the Town Councillors. “And here is actually a dead bird at his feet !” continued the Mayor. “We must really issue a proclamation that birds are not to be allowed to die here.” And the Town clerk made a note of the suggestion.
So they pulled down the statue of the Happy Prince. “As he is no longer beautiful he is no longer useful,” said the Art Professor at the University.
Then they melted the statue in a furnace. “What a strange thing !” said the overseer of the workmen at the foundry. “This broken lead heart will not melt in the furnace. We must throw it away.” So they threw it on a dust heap where the dead Swallow was also lying.
“Bring me the two most precious things in the city,” said God to one of His Angels ; and the Angel brought Him the lead heart and the dead bird.
“You have rightly chosen,” said God, “for in my garden of Paradise this little bird shall sing for ever more and in my City of Gold the Happy Prince shall praise me.”

(Oscar Wilde)


Glossary : 
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Long Answer Type Questions (50 words)  

Q. 1 Why was the prince called the Happy Prince? 
Ans. When the prince was alive, he lived in his palace. He never went out to see his public. So, he did not know anything about the sufferings and sorrows of his people. He never faced misfortune in his life. So, he was called the Happy Prince. 

Q. 2 “I cannot choose but weep,” Why did he say so? 
Ans. The swallow saw that the Prince was weeping. He asked him the reason for it. The Prince told him that he could see all the suffering and sorrows of his people from that height. But he could do nothing. Because his feet were fastened to the pedestal. Therefore, he could not choose but weep. 

Q. 3 Comment on the remark,” The livings always think that gold can make them Happy.” 
Ans. The livings have some basic needs. These needs can be fulfilled with money. Man can sell gold and get lot of money. So, man thinks that gold can make them happy. 

Q. 4 Why did the Mayor dislike the statue so much? 
Ans. The statue had given away everything to help the poor and the needy. Without ruby, gold and sapphires the statue looked dull and grey. It looked like a beggar. That is why the Mayor dislike the statue so much. 

Q. 5 Write a short note on the sufferings of the poor people in the city. 
Ans. The condition of the poor in the city is very bad. The poor seamstress cannot buy an orange for her ailing son. The playwright cannot complete his play for want of firewood and food. The match girl is without shoes and scarf. Many people are dying of hunger. 

Q. 6 What is the message conveyed by the author? 
Ans. The message is that the service of humanity is the service of God. Author shows this fact through the story. The Happy Prince gave everything for the poor. The Swallow laid down his life in serving them. Both of them were sent to the Paradise in the end. It was a reward for their service towards humanity. 

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Class – X
Main course (English Reader )
Lesson 2
(Where is the science taking us?) 


Q.1 Why does the author say that science is doing less than nothing? 
 Ans. The author says that science is doing less than nothing. Science has given us many machines for doing work. But it has done nothing in the field of ethical and spiritual values.
Q.2 What are machines doing for the humans? 
Ans. Machines are doing all work for man. They are helping in running, flying, swimming and killing the enemy. 

Q.3 Which is the greatest triumph of science? 
Ans. Science has helped us to produce more and more food in the world. It is one of the greatest triumph of science. 

Q.4 What are the consequences of war? 
Ans. The consequences of war are very destructive. Selfish traders hoard all food. Many people have to starve. 

Q.5 “Today the upper age group is over-crowded.” why? 
Ans. Science has made many new inventions in medical field. Now man can face all types of illness. He can live a long life. That is why the upper age group is over-crowded. 

Q.6 What has happened to the ethics and morals in the modern world? 
Ans. In modern time everybody is running after material things. Nobody cares about the ethics and morals values. 

Q.7 What is really needed in the world today? 
Ans. Moral and spiritual values are needed in the world today. 

Q.8 Why does the author wish to live another hundred years? 
Ans. The author hopes that life will become more interesting, intriguing and exciting in the future. He wants to enjoy such kind of life. So, he wishes to live another hundred years. 

Long Answer Type Questions (50 words) 
Q.1 List the material triumphs of science and the non-material necessities to make the world a better place. 
Ans. Science has made man the most powerful. It has given him power over physical world. Man can do everything with machines. But it does not make the world better place. In fact, mercy, charity, tolerance and justice are needed for better world. 

Q.2 What should be the ultimate aim of science? 
Ans.  The ultimate aim of the science should be to make man’s life better on the earth. But it has given only the material power to man. Material things are not needed for peaceful life. It is mercy, charity, tolerance and justice which can make man’s life better and worthwhile. 




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     Class – X 
            Main Course       
           Lesson- 3 (Secret of happiness) 


Q.1 Which is the greatest day in any individual’s life? 
Ans. The greatest day in any individual’s life is when he begins to realize himself for the first time.
Q. 2 What enthralled the student in the psychology class? 
Ans.   The professor of psychology said that an average man fails because he does not know how to control and consolidate his internal powers. This enthralled the student. 

Q. 3 Did the boy change as a result of the realization? 
Ans. Yes, a great change came in the boy as a result of realization. After that he was a very successful person in life. 

Q. 4 What is there in the personality of every man? 
Ans. In the personality of every man, there is a great reservoir of unused power. 

Q. 5 How can weak personalities become strong? 
Ans. Weak personalities can become strong by using his unused powers. 

Q. 6 What would Chesterton preach if he had just one sermon to deliver? 
Ans. If he had just one sermon to deliver, he would preach against fear and also tell the way to conquer it. 

Q.7 What are the different types of fear experienced by the people? 
Ans. People have to experience many types of fear. These are financial fears, fears of ill health, fear about the future and fear about the results of the past actions. 

Q.8 What did the author find when he flung open the door? 
Ans. When the author flung open the door, he found a little chipmunk which disappeared in the dark on seeing him. 

Q. 9 How can one have a real escape from fear? 
Ans. We should bear in mind that we are never alone. God is always with us and takes care of us. 

Q.10 What was the priceless secret discovered by Mr. Kagawa? 
Ans. Mr. Kagawa discovered that if a person immerses himself for a long time in the grace of God, he can attain peace which can never be destroyed. 

Long Answer Type Questions (50 words  
Q. 1 Describe in your own words, how the professor changed the total attitude of the student? 
Ans. Though the student was good in athletics yet he was not good in studies. One day the professor describes the class how to control and consolidate one’s powers. He gave the example of a burning glass and rays of the sun. With this example student realized the cause of his failure. Then his attitude towards life totally changed. 

Q. 2 Write a small paragraph on ‘The proper use of Human energy’. 
Ans. The author says that every human being has an immense source of energy. But only 20% of this energy is used. If this energy is used properly, man can get every success in life. But most of us do not use this energy properly. 

Q. 3 Relate the incident of North Woods in our own words. 
Ans. One day in a lonely cabin, in North Woods the author heard strange noises outside. He thought that some gangsters equipped with machine guns and pistols had come to kill him. But the author did not want to die like cowards. He wanted to die by countering the enemy. So he flung one the door. But he had to cut a sorry figure to see a chipmunk in the dark. 

Q. 4 Write in brief, the message given by Mr. Kagawa. 
Ans. Mr. Kagawa believed that man could always live a peaceful and happy life if he sought the grace of God. Peace given by God cannot be destroyed by enemy, diseases or other dangers. Mr. Kagawa always carried such peace with him. 

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ENGLISH READER (MAIN COURSE) 
CLASS-X 
Lesson-4 (A Gift for Christmas)  


Short answer type Questions.

Q.1Why was Della crying? 
Ans. Della wanted to buy a nice Christmas gift for her husband, Jim. But she had not enough money to buy it. So, she was crying. 

Q.2Describe the poverty of her house. 
Ans. The signs of poverty be seen everywhere in the house. Her couch is very little and dirty. Her jacket and hat are old and there is also small. 

Q.3. What type of present had Della planned for Jim? 
Ans. Della had planned to buy a nice and rare present for Jim. It shall be worthy of the honor of being owned Jim. 

Q.4. what were two prized possessions of Jim and Della? 
Ans. There were two prized things in the house of Jim and Della. First was the beautiful and long hair of Della and the second was watch for Jim. This watch belonged to his father and grandfather. 

Q.5. Describe the present Della bought for Jim. 
Ans. Della bought a platinum fob chain for Jim’s gold watch. According to Della, it was the only thing which was the suitable present for Jim. 

Q.6. How did Della manage to buy gift? 
Ans. Della had long and beautiful hair. She sold her hair for twenty dollars and bought the gift for twenty-one dollars. This is how she managed to buy it. 

Q.7. What did she think when she looked at herself in mirror? 
Ans Looking herself in the mirror, Della felt that she looks like a school boy. She thought that Jim would say that she had become a school boy and would not love her as before. 

Q.8. What was Jim’s reaction on seeing her hair gone? 
Ans. On seeing Della without hair, Jim’s eyes wore a strange expression. 
It was not of anger, disapproval or surprise. He simply gazed at her face. 

Q.9. What explanation did Della give to Jim? 
Ans.  Della told Jim that she had sold her hair to buy a nice gift for him. She further said that her hair would grow soon. 

Q.10. What was in the package that Jim had bought for Della? 
Ans. There was a set of combs in the package that Jim had brought for Della. Della had seen this set of combs in Broadway window and liked it very much. 

Q.11. How did Jim managed to bring the present for her? 
Ans. Jim managed to bring the present for Della by selling his gold watch. 
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Long Answer type questions: - 

Q. 1 Expenses had been greater than she had calculated. Why? 
Ans. Della’s husband earned only $20 per week. Della wanted to buy a nice gift for her husband Jim. She had been saving penny by penny for several months. But she could save only one dollar and eighty-seven cents. She could not save more than it because expenses had been always greater than she calculated. 

Q. 2 Describe the incident of Della’s selling her hair in your own words.  
 Ans. Della wanted to buy a nice and rare Christmas gift for her husband. She had only one dollar and eighty-seven cents. She knew that she could not buy a nice gift with this meagre money. So, she decided to sell her hair. She went to a shop dealing in hair goods. The shopkeeper looked at her hair and told her that she would get twenty dollars for her hair. Della did not strike any bargain. She took twenty dollars, gave her hair and left the shop. 

Q. 3 Why was Della pleased with her selection of the present for Jim? 
Ans. Jim had a gold watch. This watch belonged to his father and grandfather. This was the only property which he got as hereditary. Therefore, Jim was very proud of it. But this watch did not have a chain. Della had bought a platinum chain for this watch. She was very pleased with her choice because she had bought a thing which was badly needed by Jim. 

Q. 4 Why does the story writer call Jim’ a poor fellow’? 
Ans.   Jim earned only twenty dollars a week. He had to pay eight dollars per week as rent of their flat. He did not have gloves. He needed a new overcoat. His wife was also in the same plight. She had an old jacket and an old hat. Their couch was small and dirty. In fact, they lived from hand to mouth. Jim was only twenty two but he was burdened with a family. For these reasons, the story writer calls him’ a Poor fallow.’ 

Q. 5 What do you think about the expression in Jim’s eyes? Was it shock, surprise or anger? Why? 
Ans. When Jim saw Della without hair, his eyes wore a strange expression. It was neither shock nor surprise and no anger. It was helplessness. He thought that his wife had sold her hair because of his poverty to buy a gift for him. 

Q. 6 Both of them gave each other the gifts of rare love. How? Explain. 
Ans. Della had long beautiful hair. It was her priceless property. She sold it for twenty dollars to buy a gift for her husband, Jim. On his part, Jim sold his gold watch to buy a set of combs to give to his wife as Christmas present. This watch was his only parental property. He was very proud of it. Thus, we can say that both of them gave each other the gift of rare love. 


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English Reader (Main Course) 
Class X 
Lesson 5 (The War of Troy) 


Short Answer type questions 

Q. 1 Who was not invited to the wedding feast? 
Ans. Eris, the goddess of discord, was not invited to the wedding feast. 

Q. 2 How did Eris react when she learnt that she had not been invited? 
Ans. She became very angry. She thought of a plan to have her revenge. 

Q. 3 What did Eris do to take her revenge? 
Ans. She threw a golden apple for the fairest among the assembled guests. Thus, she tried to create discord among the goddesses. 

Q. 4 What was written on the apple? 
Ans. The writing said that the golden apple was meant for the fairest. 

Q. 5 Who claimed the apple? 
Ans. The tree goddesses- Athene, Hera and Aphrodite – claimed the apple. 

Q. 6 Why did Zeus not solve their problem? 
Ans. Zeus did not want to take any risk. He decided to keep himself out of the quarrel between the three goddesses. Therefore, he did not solve their problem. 

Q. 7 What rewards did the three goddesses promise Paris? 
Ans. Hera promised him power and riches. Athene said she would bring him glory and fame. Aphrodite said that she would give him the most beautiful woman as his wife. 

Q. 8 Why was Paris brought up in obscurity? 
Ans. An oracle had prophesied that he would one day bring ruin to the city. 

Q. 9 What was the prize given to Paris? 
Ans. Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was the most beautiful woman of the time. She was given to Paris as a prize by Aphrodite. 

Q. 10 Why did the Greek army besiege Troy? 
Ans. Helen was the queen of Sparta. The Trojan prince Paris eloped with her to Troy. The Greek army besieged Troy in order to get her back. 

Q. 11 How was Hector killed? 
Ans. Achilles fought very bravely. The Trojana withdrew in fear. Hector was left alone on the battlefield. Achilles killed him with a thrust of his spear. 

Q. 12 What was the prophecy about Achilles? 
Ans. The prophecy said that he would die young. 

Q. 13 How did Achilles die? 
Ans. Achilles’ heel was the only vulnerable part of his body. Paris hit him in the heel with his poisoned arrow. Achilles died of the poison. 

Q. 14 Did the Greeks turn back? 
Ans. The Greeks did not turn back. They only pretended to abandon the siege. It was only a trick played on the Trojana. 

Q. 15 What was inside the wooden horse? 
Ans. There were Greek soldiers inside the hollow body of the wooden horse. 

Q. 16 What was the priest’s suggestion? 
Ans. The priest asked the Trojans to be careful. He said that the Greeks could be treacherous even when they appeared to be offering gifts. 

Q. 17 What did Sinon tell about the horse? 
Ans. Sinon said that the horse was a peace-offering of the Greeks to goddess Athene. He said that they had made the horse huge so that the Trojans could not carry it into the city. 

Q. 18 When did the soldiers come out of the horse? 
Ans. The Trojans thought they had won the war. At night, they celebrated their victory and went to bed. When they were sleeping, the Greek soldiers came out of the horse. 

Q. 19 Did the Greeks get Helen at last? 
Ans. The Greeks got Helen at last. They killed the Trojans in their beds and found Helen in the palace. 

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Long Answer type textual questions 

Q.1 Write in short on the dispute between the three goddesses. 
Ans. Once there arose a dispute among the three goddesses namely Athene, Hera and Aphrodite. Cause of the dispute was a golden apple which was thrown by Eris, the goddess of discord among the guests. It bore the words “meant for the fairest “. All the three goddesses were very proud of their beauty. So, each of them claimed to have the apple. At last this dispute was settled by Paris who gave the apple to Aphrodite, the goddess of love. 

Q. 2 Write a brief note on the death of Achilles. 
Ans. Achilles was the son of Peleus and Thetis. Before his birth, a prophesy had told his mother that her son would die in the prime of his life. After his birth his mother bathed him in the river Styx. The water of this river had some magical powers. It gave Achilles protection from all wounds and diseases. But the water of Styx did not touch his heel. So, it remained vulnerable. Paris shot a poisoned arrow on Achilles. The gods guided it to Achilles’ heel. Achilles died from the wound. 

Q. 3 Write a brief note on the trickery of the Greek soldiers. 
Ans. The Greek soldiers made a huge wooden horse. Some of the soldiers hid themselves in the horse. The remaining army pretended to abandon the siege. They sailed to a nearby island where they hid themselves in a harbor. The Trojans were taken in by the trickery of the Greek soldiers. They thought that they had won the war. They dragged the wooden horse inside the city as a symbol of their victory. At night when the Trojans were sleeping the Greek soldiers came out of the horse and opened the gates of the city. The other Greek soldiers now entered the city. Then the Greek soldiers pounced upon the sleeping Trojans and killed several warriors of the enemy. The city of Troy was set on fire. 
                              
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English Reader (Main Course) 
Class X 
Lesson 6 (Some Glimpses of Ancient Indian Thoughts and Practices) 


Q. 1 What caused desperation to the gods? 
Ans. A fight was going on between the gods and the demons. The demons had upper hand in this fight. It caused desperation to the gods. 

Q. 2 Who did the gods go to in desperation? 
Ans. In desperation, the gods went to Lord Vishnu to seek his help to defeat the demons. 

Q. 3 What did the Lord advise them? 
Ans. The Lord advised them to get a mighty sword prepared from the bones of some great sage. 

Q. 4 What was the sacrifice of saint Dadhichi? 
Ans. Saint Dadhichi laid down his life so that his bones could be used to prepare an invincible weapon which was to be used to put an end to evil. 

Q. 5 What is the real spirit behind the Yajnas performed in our homes? 
Ans. The real spirit behind the Yajnas performed in our homes is that of detachment. 

Q. 6 What does the tradition of feeding birds and animals prove? 
Ans. This tradition proves the fact that the Indians believe in the unity of life anywhere and everywhere. 

Q. 7 Why did some scholars laugh at Ashtavakra? 
Ans. Some scholars laughed at Ashtavakra to see his deformed body. They thought that a person with such a misshapen body could not discuss high philosophy. 

Q. 8 How did Ashtavakra react? 
Ans. Ashtavakra became very angry and said that he was ashamed of being invited to the assembly of skinners. 

Q. 9 What did Vivekananda told the lady who laughed at his simple dress? 
Ans. Vivekananda told the lady that in her country it was the tailor who made a man. But in India a man became great by his wisdom and character. 

Q. 10 What was the status of women in the ancient India? 
Ans. In ancient India. Women enjoyed a high status in the society. No auspicious function was considered to be held properly without the presence of woman. 

Q. 11 Why did Shivaji bow his head before the woman who was brought to him as a gift? 
Ans. Shivaji bowed his head before that woman to honor her. He not only bowed his head before her but also called her his mother. 

Q. 12 Why, according to you were the wars fought in the Mahabharta and Ramayana sacred? 
Ans. The wars fought in the Mahabharta and Ramayana were sacred because they were fought to defend and uphold the honor of powerful motherhood. 

Q. 13 What does Lord Rama’s meeting with a Bheel woman and eating the tasted berries show? 
Ans. Lord Rama’s meeting with Bheel woman and eating the tasted berries shows that there was never any discrimination in ancient India on the basis of caste, creed, sex or profession. 

Long Answer Type Questions 

Q. 1 Why according to the author, should those people be ashamed of themselves who believe in female foeticide? 
Ans. According to the author, those people who believe in the female foeticide should be ashamed of themselves because they are the enemies of human race. They are sinners, killers and murderers of the mother of mankind. Besides it, they are acting against the will of our forefathers who gave a respectable status to the woman in the society. 

Q. 2 How does the author support the idea of the victory of the good over the evil? 
Ans. The author supports the idea of the victory of the good over the evil by giving two examples. The first example is of the sage Dadhichi who laid down his life to give the gods an invincible weapon out of his bones This weapon was to be used to defeat the demons who were the symbol of evil. 
The second example is of the younger sons of Shri Guru Gobind Singh. They sacrificed their lives for the sake of their faith and the canons of justice and true liberty. 

Q. 3 What is the basic difference between the position of women in society in the ancient times and now? 
Ans. In ancient India, women enjoyed a respectable position in the society. No auspicious function was considered to be held properly without their presence. Women were never regarded as an object of lust or sex. But now women are denied their rightful position in the society. People are resorting to female foeticide which is really a sinful and shameful act. 

Q. 4 What does the practice of ‘Langer’ stand for? Explain. 
Ans. The practice of langer was started by the great Sikh Gurus. This practice gives us the message that we should eat only after we have shared our meal with others. This idea of distribution applies not to food only but; it extends well up to the entire resources and funds that are available to man. 

Q. 5 Give an example to prove that in ancient India, there was no discrimination on the basis of caste. 
Ans. Lord Rama visited the hut of a Bheel woman and ate the berries tasted by her. It is a sufficient proof of the fact that in ancient India there was no discrimination on the basis of caste. 


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                                               Class-X 

(Main Course) Lesson-7 
The Home Coming 


Short answer type questions: - 

Q. 1 Who was Phatik? 
Ans. Phatik was a fourteen years old village boy. He lived with his mother and younger brother, Makhan. He was the ring leader of the village boys. 

Q. 2 What was the new mischief he thought of? 
Ans. He thought of rolling away a heavy log of wood from its place. This log of wood was lying on the mud-flat on the bank of the river. It was waiting to be shaped into a mast. 

Q. 3 Why were Phatik and his friends annoyed with Makhan? 
Ans. Phatik and his friends were going to roll away a log of wood from its place. But Makhan came and sat on this log. Makhan did not move away from his position in spite of their warning. So they were annoyed with Makhan. 

Q. 4 What was Phatik’s new maneuvers? 
Ans. Phatik’s new maneuver was to roll the log of wood along with Makhan. 

Q. 5 Why did Phatik beat Makhan even in the presence of his mother? 
Ans. Makhan lied to his mother that Phatik had beaten him. Phatik could not bear this. Therefore, he beat Makhan in the presence of his mother. 

Q. 6 Was Makhan speaking the truth? 
Ans. No, Makhan was not speaking the truth. Phatik did not beat him. The fact was that Makhan had beaten Phatik. 

Q. 7 Why did Phatik’s mother want to send him away to her brother’s house? 
Ans. Phatik’s mother had a prejudice against Phatik/ She feared that Phatik would someday drown Makhan in the river or break his head in a fight. So, she wanted to send him away to her brother’s house. 

Q. 8 How was Phatik received by his aunt? 
Ans. Phatik’s aunt received Phatik with hatred. She did not like Phatik’s entry into her house. He was an unwanted guest for her. 

Q. 9 Why could Phatik not do well at school? 
Ans. Phatik had studied in a village school. He did not know the ways of a city school. Secondly, he was not treated well at his uncle’s home. All this affected his performance at school. 

Q. 10 How did his aunt behave on learning about the loss of his book? 
Ans. When the aunt came to know about the loss of his book. She became very angry. She told him that she could not afford to buy him new books five times a month. 

Q. 11 What was the immediate reason for Phatik’s departure from his uncle’s house? 
Ans. One day on his way back from school, Phatik had a severe headache and shivering fit. He felt that he was going to have an attack of malaria. He feared that he might be a nuisance to his aunt. Therefore, he left his uncle’s house. 

Q. 12 Why did Bishamber send for his sister? 
Ans. Phatik’s condition became very serious. He was missing his mother very much. Bishamber understood his feeling. Therefore, he sent for his sister. 

Q. 13 What were Phatik’s last words? 
Ans. Phatik’s last words were,” Mother, the holidays have come.” 


Long Answer Type Questions: - 

Q. 1 How does Phatik feel when he is at Calcutta? 
Ans. Phatik does not feel at ease at Calcutta. He is constantly tortured by home sickness. He is rebuked by his aunt regularly. He is insulted and mocked at by his cousins at school. In fact, he is an unnecessary and unwanted guest in his uncle’s home. All these things make his life as if he were in hell. 

Q. 2 Why does Bishamber want to take Phatik to Calcutta? 
Ans. Phatik’s mother told her elder brother, Bishamber, that Phatik was a nuisance for her. He does not take interest in his studies at all. He is disobedient and quarrelsome. On hearing this, Bishamber offers her to take Phatik to Calcutta and educate him with his own sons. In fact, he wanted to help his widow sister in this way. 

Q. 3 Who is responsible for Phatik’s death? 
Ans. There is no individual responsible for Phatik’s death. These are only circumstances which are responsible for his death. Phatik’s mother, his uncle and his aunt could not understand the internal feelings of Phatik. They could not understand that only his own home is paradise for the boy of fourteen. 

Q. 4 (A) Give a brief character-sketch of Bishamber. 
Ans. Bishamber is Phatik’s maternal uncle. He is a kind and sympathetic person. He is very fond of his younger sister. He wants to help her by educating her naughty son, Phatik with his own sons at Calcutta. When Phatik falls ill he leaves no stone unturned to cure him. He sends for a doctor and sits by the side of the ailing boy throughout the night. But he fails to understand his wife’s evil designs towards Phatik. 

Q. 4 (B) Write a character-sketch of Makhan. 
Ans. Makhan is the younger brother of Phatik. His mother considers him an innocent lad. But as a matter of fact, he is cleverer than Phatik. He beats Phatik, scratches him and kicks him and then he goes to her mother weeping and crying and complains to her against Phatik. Thus, we can say that he is cleverer than Phatik. 

Q. 4 (C) Write a character-sketch of Phatik’s aunt. 
Ans. Phatik’s aunt is an unkind lady who does not like Phatik at all. She considers him a burden on her family. She constantly despises and slights him. She becomes very angry and rebukes Phatik when he tells her that he has lost his book. She is responsible for Phatik’s death to a great extent. She can be said to be the villain of this story. 

Q. 4 (D) Write a character-sketch of Phatik’s mother. 
Ans. Phatik’s mother is a simple village woman. She is widow having two sons- Phatik and Makhan. She prefers Makhan to Phatik because she has a prejudice against Phatik. She considers Phatik a nuisance for her. For this, she sends Phatik with her brother to live at Calcutta for which she has to pay a heavy price. In the end, we find her a lovable mother and feel pity for her. 

Q. 5 Give a pen-portrait of Phatik. 
Ans. Phatik is a fourteen years-old country boy. He spends most of his time in playing and making mischief. He is the ring leader of the village boys and leads them to make a new mischief every day. He does not obey his mother and frequently quarrels with his younger brother. He prefers playing to studying. His mother has a prejudice against him and sends him to Calcutta with her brother, Bishamber. At Calcutta, his behavior is totally changed and he becomes as innocent as a lamb. He wants to obey his aunt readily. As a matter of fact, he represents all the boys of fourteen whose real paradise is their own home. 

Q. 6 Describe the quarrel between Phatik and Makhan. 
Ans. Makhan sat on the log of wood which was to be rolled away by Phatik and his friends. Makhan did not care about the warning of Phatik and his friends. So, the log was rolled along with Makhan. Makhan fell down on the ground. Then he stood up and started beating Phatik. There after he complained to his mother that Phatik had beaten him. Phatik was scolded by the mother and was rebuked for beating Makhan. Phatik told the mother that Makhan was telling a lie. But Makhan repeated his charge. Phatik could not bear this injustice and started beating Makhan in the presence of his mother. This quarrel came to an end only when Bishamber entered the home. 


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Class X 
Main Course 
Lesson-8(The Making of the Earth) 


Q. 1 What are planets? 
Ans. A body in space that moves round a star is called a planet. For example, our earth is a planet because it moves round the sun. The sun is a star. 
Q. 2 Define Solar System. 
Ans. Solar system means the sun and its family. It includes earth, moon, other planets, and their satellites. 
Q. 3 How can you distinguish between planets and stars? 
Ans. The simple method of distinguishing the stars from planets is to see if they twinkle or not. Stars twinkle, planets do not. 
Q. 4 Why do the stars twinkle? 
Ans. The stars are balls of fire like our sun. They seem to be twinkling as their rays pass through different layers of atmosphere. 
Q. 5 How was earth formed? 
Ans. It happened millions of years ago that a small portion of gases shot out from the sun. With the passage of time, it cooled down and took the shape of earth. 
Q. 6 How were the oceans and seas formed? 
Ans. When the earth cooled, all the vapors in the air condensed into water and came down as rain. It must have rained heavily. All this water filled the great hollows in the earth. Thus, the oceans and seas were formed. 

Long Answer type Questions 

Q. 1 Write a short note on the making of the earth. 
Ans. Millions of years ago, our earth and the other planets were the part of the sun. Somehow, little bits of the sun got loose and shot away. Among these was our earth. In the beginning, it was very hot. But with the passage of time, it began to cool down and finally it took the shape of as it is now. 
Q. 2 Write a few words on the happy family of the sun. 
Ans. The sun and the planets with their satellites form a happy family of the sun. This family is also known as the solar system. Solar means belonging to the sun and the sun being the father of all the planets, the whole group is called the solar system. 


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Class x 
Main Course 
Lesson 9 (The Rule of the Road) 


Q. 1 Why was the stout old lady walking down the middle of a road? 
Ans. The stout old lady was walking in the middle of a road because she thought that it was her right being a citizen of the free country. 
Q. 2 How was she mistaken about liberty? 
Ans. Walking in the middle of the road, she was depriving other people of their liberties. Thus, she was mistaken abut liberty. 
Q. 3 What does the policemen at Piccadilly Circus symbolize? 
Ans. The policeman at Piccadilly Circus symbolizes the savior of people’s liberty. 
Q. 4 Can we do whatever we feel like doing? 
Ans. Yes, we can do everything that we like provided it does not deprive the other people of their liberty and does not disturb their peace. 
Q. 5 What was the writer reading during the journey? 
Ans. During the journey, the writer was reading a blue-book. 
Q. 6 Why did he need a reasonable silence in the compartment? 
Ans. The writer was not reading for the pleasure. He was reading the blue-book to get some vital information which was necessary for his profession. So, he wanted reasonable silence in the compartment. 
Q. 7 Who disturbed him? 
Ans. A talkative passenger disturbed him by talking useless things in a loud voice. 
Q. 8 What was the intruding passenger talking of? 
Ans. He was talking about any and every subject of this world. 
Q. 9 What is the basis of social contract? 
Ans. A reasonable consideration of the rights of the others is the basis of social contract. 
Q. 10 We should be a judicious mixture of both. What does the writer mean by this statement? 
Ans. In the above statement, the writer means to say that we must preserve our individual liberty as well as our social liberty. 

Long Answer Type Questions: - 

Q. 1 What is the theme of the essay” The Rule of the Road? “Explain. 
Ans. This essay reveals some of the most important issues of rights and responsibilities in social life. The rights of one individual end where the rights of another person begin. A.G. Gardiner has brought this point through some interesting anecdotes. 
Q. 2 Describe in your own words how the writer was disturbed during his train journey? 
Ans. One day, during his rail journey the writer was reading a blue-book. He was not reading it for pleasure but to get some important points which were useful for his profession. Then a passenger began to talk loudly to his companion. He was talking of any and everything. This disturbed the author during his rail journey. 
Q. 3 “Liberty is not a personal affair only but a social contract.” Explain in 50-60 words. 
Ans. Liberty is not a personal affair only, but a social contract. It means that we can enjoy our liberty as long as it does not interfere the liberty of other people and does not disturb their peace. In other words, we can say that if we want to enjoy liberty for ourselves, we should respect the liberties of others. 

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                                                Class-X 
Main Course 
Lesson 10 (The Merchant of Venice) 


Q. 1 How was Portia dressed and on whose recommendation, did she come to the court? 
Ans. Portia was dressed in a lawyer’s dress and she came to the court on the recommendation of Ballario. 
Q. 2 What was the suit between Shylock and Antonio? 
Ans. Antonio had borrowed three thousand ducats from Shylock. When the former failed to pay the borrowed money in time. Shylock latter filed a suit against him. 
Q. 3 What does Shylock want? 
Ans. Shylock wants a pound of flesh from Antonio’s body nearest the heart. 
Q. 4 Why does Portia want the jew to show mercy? 
Ans. Portia wants to save Antonio’s life at all costs. That’s why she wants the jew to show mercy. 
Q. 5 What does the Jew insist upon? 
Ans. The Jew insists upon having a pound of flesh of Antonio’s body near the heart. 
Q. 6 What does Bassanio offer the Jew? 
Ans. Bassanio offers the Jew double the amount that Antonio had to give to him. He says that if it is not sufficient, he can pay ten times over it. 
Q. 7 Why does Shylock call Balthazar(Portia) a Daniel? 
Ans. Balthazar(Portia) says that according to the bond and the law of Venice, Shylock has the right to have a pound of flesh from Antonio’s body. Hearing this the jew is overjoyed and calls Balthazar a Danial. 
Q. 8 Why is not Shylock ready to take money? 
Ans. Shylock is not ready to take money because he is bent upon taking Antonio’s life. 


Long-Answer Type Questions: - 


Q. 1 What says the bond? 
Ans. Antonio borrows three thousand decades from a rich but very crafty Jew named Shylock. He promises to pay this money back in three months’ time. He signs a bond which says that if he fails to pay back the money in time, Shylock would be entitled to take a pound of flesh from any part near Antonio’s heart. 
Q. 2 Why can’t Shylock take his pound of flesh? 
Ans. Portia tells Shylock that the bond, of course, gives him a pound of flesh. But it does not give him any drop of blood. If during the process of cutting a pound of flesh, he sheds a drop of blood, the law would punish him. All his property will be confiscated by the state. Now it is not possible to cut off flesh without shedding a drop of blood. This is the reason why Shylock can’t take his pound of flesh. 
Q. 3 What does Antonio want Bassanio to tell Portia? 
Ans. When Antonio loses all hopes of surviving, he bids farewell to Bassanio. He wants Bassanio to tell Portia that his friend (Antonio) had died for his (Bassanio) cause. 
Q. 4 What is the vow taken by Bassanio? 
Ans. Bassanio vows that he will try to save Antonio at all costs. He says that he will sacrifice his own life, his dearest wife and all the property he owns to get Antonio rid of the grip of the Jew. 
Q. 5 What does Shylock offer after he fails to take his pound of flesh? 
Ans. After losing the legal battle of taking his pound of flesh, Shylock offers to accept the money that Bassanio is willing to give him. It is three times the principal amount. But the court rejects his offer. Then he says that he would accept only the principal. Even this offer is rejected by the court of the Duke. 
Q. 6 What is the penalty imposed upon Shylock? 
Ans. Shylock is accused of hatching a conspiracy against the life of Antonio. He can be sentenced to death. But the Duke spares his life and imposes a heavy penalty on him. His property is divided into two halves. One half is to go to Antonio and the other to the state. Antonio rejects to take his share. He requests the court to give his share to that Christian gentleman who married the daughter of Shylock against the will of his father. 
Q. 7 What does Antonio want the law to do? 
Ans. Antonio wants the law that this share of Shylock’s property should be given to that Christian young man who has married the daughter of Shylock. It should be transferred to him after the death of Shylock. He also wants that Shylock should embrace Christianity. 
Q. 8 Write a brief note on Portia’s speech on mercy. 
Ans. Portia delivers a passionate speech on mercy in the court of the Duke. She says that mercy is superior to any other quality of human being. It benefits both the giver and the receiver. In fact, Portia wants to impress the cruel Jew to show some mercy to Antonio. He tells him that by showing mercy, he would become a noble and godly person. 
Q. 9 Describe in brief the character-sketch of Portia. 
Ans. Portia is the main character of the play. She is not only beautiful but also very intelligent. She has a good knowledge of the law of Venice. Shylock is bent upon having a pound of Antonio’s flesh near the heart. She warns the Jew that he can have a pound of Antonio’s flesh but he is not allowed to shed any drop of blood. How can it be possible to cut off a pound of flesh without shedding blood? So, the Jew has to drop the idea of having a pound of flesh. Thus, her intelligent handling of Antonio’s case, saves the life of the Merchant of Venice. 
Q. 10 Give a brief character-sketch of Shylock. 
Ans. Shylock is a Jew who is a money lender by profession. He is a cruel person. He lends some money to Antonio on a strange condition. The condition is that if Antonio fails to return money in time, Shylock will be entitled to cut off a pound of flesh from Antonio body near the heart. When Antonio fails to return money in time, he insists on having a pound of flesh. He rejects all appeals of mercy. He also refuses to accept ten times the money he has lent to Antonio. But in the end, Portia dashes all his ill designs to the ground. 
Q. 11 How does Portia turn the tables on Shylock? 
Ans. Portia turns the tables on Shylock in a very intelligent way. She tells the Jew that the bond only gives him the right of having a pound of flesh but not to shed blood. If he sheds even a drop of blood while cutting off flesh, he will be punished by the law. When the Jew offers to take the money, which was offered by Bassanio, she says that he could take only a pound of flesh nothing else. She also rejects to let him have even the principal of his amount. 

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Class-X 
Main Course 
Lesson 11 (The Grief) 

Q. 1 Why does the cab-driver Iona Potapov look quite white? 
Ans. Iona looks quite white for two reasons. First, he is grief stricken because of his only son’s death, secondly, because he is covered with snow. 
Q. 2 Who is the first passenger and where does he want to go? 
Ans. The first passenger is an officer and he wants to go to Viborg. 
Q. 3 Is Iona Potapov driving the cab properly? 
Ans. No, Iona Potapov is not driving the cab properly. He cannot drive his cab properly because he is lost in his grief. 
Q. 4 Who has died? 
Ans. Iona’s only son, Barin has died. 
Q. 5 Why does he want to talk about it? 
Ans. He wants to talk about it to lighten his grief. 
Q. 6 Who are the next passengers? 
Ans. The next passengers are three young men. Two of them are lanky and tall while the third is short and humpbacked. 
Q. 7 Do the three young men going to the Police Bridge listen to what Iona wants to say? 
Ans. No, the three young men going to Police Bridge do not listen to what Iona wants to say. Instead of listening to him, they abuse him all the way. 
Q. 8 How do his young clients treat Iona? 
Ans.  Iona’s young clients talk to him abusively. When he wants to tell them about his son’s death they make fun of him. 
Q. 9 “Now I have only a wife and the moist-ground.” What does ‘moist ground’ refer to? 
Ans. ‘Moist ground’ refers to the grave of Iona’s son who has died recently. 
Q. 10 Is Iona able to tell the passengers how his son died? 
Ans. No, Iona is not able to tell the passengers how his son died. In spite of several efforts he could not find a patient listener. 

Long Answer Type Questions: - 

Q. 1 Why is Iona Potapov yearning to talk about his son’s death? 
Ans. Iona’s only son has died recently. His heart is full of grief. He wants to lessen the burden of grief from his heart by telling someone the story of his woe. Therefore, he is yearning to talk about his son’s death. 
Q. 2 Why don’t people listen to him? 
Ans. People do not listen to Iona because they do not have time to hear the story of his grief. They have many other things to attend instead of hearing him. Above all, everyone has become self-centered having no fellow-feelings. For these reasons people do not hear him. 
Q. 3 Write a note on the character of Iona Potapov. 
Ans. Iona Potapov is a poor cab-driver. He is a grief-stricken because his young son has died recently. He wants to speak to his passengers about the death of his son to lessen the burden of his grief. But they pay no attention to him. He patiently bears the insulting remarks of three young passengers who ill-treat him. In fact, he is a sort of dead-alive human being. 
Q. 4 What is the theme of the story? 
Ans. This story is based on the theme that most of the people have become selfish and heartless who have nothing to do with the sorrows and sufferings of others. They do not have any fellow feelings. This fact has been proved by the author in the story with the example of Iona who could not find a listener to tell his tale of woe. 

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Class X English Literature (Main Course)  
Lesson 11 (Fathers and Sons) 

Glossary: - in front of, look- through, wait for, think about. 


Q. 1 What were the two men talking about?  
Ans. The two men were talking about the foolishness of their sons.  
Q.2 Why couldn't George be a doctor?  
Ans. According to Everton his son George could not be a doctor because he did not think. He meant to say that he did not have a brain to become a doctor.  
Q.3 What did Harry say about Vernon?  
Ans. Harry said that his son Vernon never been a thinker and he would never be rich. He would remain poor all his life.  
Q.4 What did George want to own? How much money did he get for it?  
Ans. George wanted to own a big new car. He got for it twenty pounds.  
Q.5 Where was George sent by his father?  
Ans. George was sent to a flower shop located in Hudson street. He was sent there by his father to buy a car.  
Q.6 Where did Harry ask Vernon to go?  
Ans. Harry asked Vernon to go to Rope street where he worked.  
Q.7 What did George think about his Father?  
Ans. George thought that his father could not think well.  
Q.8 What did Vernon say about his father?  
Ans. Vernon said that his father was as bad as George's.  
Q.9 What did both the fathers conclude at last?  
Ans. At last, both the fathers concluded that their sons could do nothing in their lives because they could not think at all.  
Q.10 What did both the sons conclude at last?  
Ans. At last both the sons conclude that men i.e. fathers could not think. They do not even try to think.  
Q.11 Why could George not own a car?  
Ans. He could not own a car because the laws of England didn't allow small boys to have cars.  
Q.12 Why was George angry with his father?  
Ans. He was angry because his father didn't give him money to pay for the taxi.  
Q.13 Why was Vernon angry with his father?  
Ans. He was angry because his father had not used the telephone to talk to himself.  

Long Answer Type Questions 


Q. 1 What is the theme of the story? 
Ans. This story brings out the emotional and intellectual gap between the older and younger generations. Elders think that the Youngers are incapable of any thinking. On the other hand, the Youngers feel the same about the elders. They have no regard for each other. 
Q. 2 Write what you know about George. 
Ans. George is Everton’s son. He is a little boy. His father wants him to be a doctor. But he has no hope of his becoming a doctor. He says that George can’t think at all. George, too has no good opinion of his father. He says that his father can’s think very well. 
Q. 3 Give a brief character-sketch of Vernon. 
Ans. Vernon is Harry’s son. He is a little boy. His father has no good opinion of him. He tries to prove that Vernon is a big fool. On the other hand, Vernon also thinks that his father is incapable of thinking. Both of them find fault with each other. In fact, they represent modern fathers and sons. 



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Class – X
Supplementary Reader
Lesson-1
 ( A Vine On a House )

Q. 1 Who was Robert Harding ? Who lived with him ? 
Ans.  Robert Harding was a small farmer. He was forty year old. He was silent and cold mannered man who made no friend in his neighbourhood. His wife, his sister-in-law and two young children lived with him. 

Q. 2 Where had Matilda gone ? 
Ans. It became known in the neighbourhood that Matilda had gone to visit her mother in lowa.  But reality was that she was murdered by her husband and her dead body was buried in the porch. 

Q. 3 Why did Revd Gruber and Attorney Hyatt stop at the deserted house ? 
Ans. Revd Gruber and Attorney Hyatt stopped at the deserted house to discuss some business matter. They talked till it grew dark. 

Q. 4 What happened while they were in the house ? 
Ans. While they were busy in discussing some important business matter in the house , suddenly a long vine that covered half of the front of the house, began to shake violently. 

Q. 5 “Both men were startled.”. Who were these both men and why were they startled ? 
Ans. The two men were Revd Gruber and Attorney Hyatt. They were startled to see the vine shaking violently. It occurred all of a sudden. 

Q. 6 Who did they talk about the incident and where ? 
Ans. They talked about the incident to their friends at Norton. 

Q. 7 Why did they go to that house again and with whom ? What happened then ? 
Ans. They went to that house again to know the secret of the vine which shook violently the previous day. They went there with their two friends. Again the mysterious phenomenon occurred. 

Q. 8 Who went to the house every evening and why ? 
Ans. Every evening people from the neighborhood went to that house to see the strange phenomenon. 

Q. 9 Who suggested that the vine should be dug out ? What happened then ? 
Ans. Some people of the neighborhood suggested that the vine should be dug out. When the vine was dug-out and the roots were freed from soil, people saw there a formation of human being. 

Q. 10 Whose skeleton was it ? How do you know ? 
Ans. It was Mrs. Harding’s skeleton. We know it from the disappearance of its left foot. We know Mrs. Harding also did not have left foot. 

Q. 11 Was the vine replaced ? Who ordered it ? 
Ans. Yes, the vine was replaced. The Sheriff of the county ordered to replace it.  

Q. 12 Did Mrs. Harding actually visit her relatives? How do you know? 
Ans. No, Mrs. Harding actually did not visit her relatives. When it was enquired from her relatives they revealed this fact. They also did not know where she was supposed to be. 


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Class- X
Supplementary Reader
Lesson-2 (Bed Number 29)

Q. 1 How did the author lose his eyesight? 
Ans. One day the author was going in a busy street. All of a sudden he was hit by a fast moving car. As a result of this accident his lost his eyesight. 

Q. 2 What did he do before he lost his eyesight? 
Ans. The author was a painter, Therefore , he drew paintings before he lost his eyesight. 

Q. 3 Who did he meet in the hospital ward? Why was he there? 
Ans. The author met a cheerful person in the hospital ward. His name was Naeem. He was also blind. He came there for the treatment of his eyes. 

Q. 4 When did the author regain his confidence and how? 
Ans. Naeem, his wardmate, encouraged the author to start painting again. At first, the author thought that Naeem was making fun of him. But later on he agreed. Naeem described a scene to him which he painted on the canvas. Naeem praised his painting very much . Thus the author regained his confidence. 

Q. 5 What happened when the author’s second operation failed? Who consoled him then? 
Ans. When the author’s second operation failed, he got greatly disappointed. He had spent all that he had on this operation. At that time Naeem consoled him. He also offered him some money for the third operation. 

Q. 6 How did he get the money to get operated the third time? Who helped him? 
Ans. To get operated for  the third time, he got money by selling his paintings. It was Naeem who actually bought his paintings. Thus , he helped the author. 

Q.7 Where was Naeem when the author regained his eyesight? 
Ans. Naeem had left the hospital before the author regained his eyesight. Naeem was also blind . He had spent all his money on buying author’s paintings. He did not have any money for his third operation. So he left the hospital without telling anyone. 

Q. 8 Did the author know that Naeem was also blind like him? Give reasons to support your answer.? 
Ans. No, the author did not know that Naeem was blind like him. Naeem used to describe the scenes to the author so minutely that he never suspected that Naeem was blind. Naeem also praised the paintings of the author in such a way that would not be done by a blind man.The author came to know about Naeem’s blindness only after he regained his eyesight. 
Q. 9 Why could Naeem not get his treatment done? 
Ans. Naeem could not get his treatment done because he did not have any money.He had spent all his money in buying the paintings of the author. 
Q. 10 How did the author feel when he learnt that Naeem had left the hospital because he had no money for the treatment? 
Ans. When the author came to know about this fact, he became still like a statue. His eyes were filled with tears of remorse. 

Q.11 How could Naeem describe different seasons in detail? 
Ans. Naeem himself was an artist. He had painted the paintings of four seasons before he became blind. In fact he had described his paintings to the author. 

Q. 12 What does the message ’ The Goddess of art smiled on me…………….and then it vanished mean? 
Ans. This message means that the author could regain his eyesight only because of  Naeem. Now he had hoped that he could see him. But when he read Naeem’s letter his hope disappeared.  
                    


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Class X, Supplementary Reader 
 Lesson-3 (Half a rupee worth) 

Q. 1 How did Subbiah manage to get rice during the drought ? 
Ans. During the drought,Subbiah would go round the countryside and collect as much rice as he could.He would sell it at a very high rate and earn huge profits. 

Q. 2 Those were the days when Subbiah loathed the rice bags Which were those days? Why did he dislike the rice then? 
Ans. Subbiah was then a young boy Like other boys ,he longed to go and enjoy life in the open. But his father would not allow him to leave the shop. Naturally Subbiah loathed the rice bags. 

Q. 3 What is the meaning of the statement ‘Rice was in his blood’? 
Ans. Subbiah had spent all his days with his father in his rice shop. Thus he knew all about rice, and the rice business. It could be said that rice was in his blood. 

Q. 4 How did Subbiah’s profits increase during the war ? Did he follow the rules laid down by the government? How did he tackle the officers? 
Ans. During the war, there was scarcity of rice. Subbiah sold his stock at very high rate and made big profit. He followed the rules only on paper, not in practice. He bribed the officers who came to check his stock and accounts. 

Q. 5 Besides selling rice, what else did Subbiah do to earn more? 
Ans. Subbiah lent money at very high rates of interest. If people failed to pay back his money, he would acquire their houses. Thus he earned more and more money.  

Q. 6 Who came to buy rice one evening when Subbiah was about to go home? Did he give rice to him? What did he say? 
Ans. A person came to buy some rice. Subbiah refused to give him any. He said that he had some other business. But then he agreed to give the rice, but only half a seer for eight annas. 
Q. 7 How much rice did Subbiah agree to sell the man and for how much? 
Ans.Subbiah agreed to sell hem half a seer of rice for half a rupee. 

Q. 8 Why did Subbiah ask the man to wait? What reasons did he give? 
Ans. Subbiah did not want anyone to know about his secret godown.So, he asked the man to wait. He said that he would have to go and bring rice from some other man. 

Q. 9 Where did Subbiah go to get the rice ? 
Ans. He went to his godown to get the rice. This godown was situated in a back street. 

Q. 10 Did the man wait for Subbiah for long? How do you know ? 
Ans. The man waited for a very long time. He came in the evening and waited till morning. Then he went to Subbaiah’s wife who took him to the godown. 

Q. 11 Where did the man go after waiting for Subbiah for a long time? Where was he taken and by whom? 
Ans. The man went to Subbiah’s home. There he asked Subbiah’s wife about him. The wife took the man to Subbiah’s godown. 

Q. 12 How did Subbiah die ? 
Ans. Subbiah tried to take out some rice from a heap of bags. While he was doing so, the bags fell on him. He was buried under the bags and killed. 


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Class X, Supplementary Reader 
 Lesson-4 (One Thousand Dollars) 

Q. 1 Who gave $1000 to Robert Gillian? Who did the money belong to? Why was it given to him? 
Ans. Lawyer Tolman gave $ 1000 to Robert Gillian. This money belonged to Robert’s uncle. It was given to him because Robert’s uncle wrote in his will to do so. 

Q. 2 Why was Bobby Gillian not happy with the money given to him? 
Ans. Bobby Gillian was not happy with the money given to him because it was much less than the amount he had expected. 

Q. 3 What was the condition laid down by the lawyer? 
Ans. The condition was that Bobby Gillian would give to the lawyer all the details how and where he had spent the money. He would give it as soon as he spent the money. 

Q. 4 Who else got the money and how much? 
Ans. The butler, the housekeeper and Miss Hayden also got the money. They got ten dollars each. 

Q. 5 Why was old Bryson not serious in giving suggestion to Gillian? What were the suggestions given? 
Ans. Old Bryson was not serious in giving suggestions to Gillian because he did not like him. He suggested to Gillian to buy a happy home, to buy pure milk for one hundred babies, to have half an hour in one of the art galleries, to provide education to an ambitious boy and to buy a diamond pendant for Miss Lotta Lauriere. 

Q. 6 Which one of the suggestions did Gillian accept? What did he do then? 
Ans. Gillian accepted the suggestion of buying a diamond pendant for Miss Lotta Lauriere. Then he phoned for a cab and made his way towards Columbian Theatre sitting in the cab. 

Q. 7 Who was Miss Lotta Lauriere? Did she welcome Gillian’s coming? Was she happy with his offer? Give reasons for your answer. 
Ans. Miss Lotta Lauriere was an actress in Columbian Theatre. She did not welcome Gillian’s coming. She was not happy with Gillian’s offer of buying for her a pendant worth $1000. She wanted to get a costlier pendant. 

Q. 8 What did Gillian ask the driver of the cab? Did he like his answer? How do you know? 
Ans. Gillian asked the driver of the cab what he would do if he had one thousand dollars. The driver replied that he would open a saloon. Gillian did not like his answer. His saying, On, tells us that Gillian did not like his answer. 

Q. 9 Who did Gillian talk to next? Why? 
Ans. Gillian next talked to a blind man who was selling pencils. He wanted to k now from him what he would do if he had one thousand dollars. 

Q. 10 After talking to the blind man where did Gillian go? 
Ans. After talking to the blind man, Gillian went to the office of Tolman & sharp at Broadway. 

Q. 11 Why did Gillian give his money to Miss Hayden? What did he ask her to give him and why? 
Ans. Gillian gave his money to Miss Hayden because he loved her and wanted to help her. He asked her to give him a piece of paper to write a note. 

Q. 12 What did he write in his note? 
Ans. He wrote in his note that he had paid $ 1000 to the best and dearest woman on the earth on account of eternal happiness. 

Q. 13 Why did he go to the lawyers again? 
Ans. He went to the lawyers again to give the details of the expenditure of $ 1000. 

Q. 14 What had his uncle written in the post-script of his will? 
Ans. His uncle had written in the post-script of his will that if Robert had spent $ 1000 wisely, he would get another $ 5000. Otherwise this amount would go to Miss Hayden. 

Q. 15 Why did Gillian not get the rest of the money? Was he sorry for his action? 
Ans. Gillian did not get the rest of the money because he told the lawyers that he had lost the $ 1000 on the horse races and they needed not to see the detail note of the expenditure. He was not sorry for his action at all. 


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Class-X 
Supplementary Reader 
Lesson-5 
(The Dying Detective)

Q. 1 Who was Mrs. Hudson? Why did she go to Watson’s house? 
Ans. Mrs. Hudson was Sherlock Holmes’s landlady. She went to Watson’s house to bring him to her house as he was needed by his friend, Sherlock Holmes. 

Q. 2 Where did Holmes get the Illness from? When did he get it ? 
Ans. Holmes got the Illness from some Chinese sailors. He got it when he was working on a case down at Ratherithe, near the river. 

Q. 3 What was Holmes condition when Watson saw him? 
Ans. Watson saw Holmes in serious condition. His eyes had the brightness of fever, his cheeks were flushed, his hands twitched all the time. He lay listless. 

Q. 4 Why did he not let Watson examine him? 
Ans. Holmes was suffering from a contagious disease. So Holmes did not let Watson examine him lest he should catch his disease. 

Q. 5 Till when was Watson asked to stay in Holmes’s house? 
Ans. Watson was asked to stay in Holmes’s house till six o’clock. 

Q. 6 Why did Holmes not let Watson touch his things? What did Watson think about Holmes then? 
Ans. Watson picked up an ivory box.There was a poisonous spring in the box.Therefore, Holmes told him to put down the box. He further said that he hated to have his things touched. Watson thought that perhaps illness had affected Holmes’s mind. 

Q. 7 What did Holmes ask Watson to do before leaving his room? 
Ans. Before leaving his room, Holmes asked Watson to put all the half-crowns in the watch Pocket and the rest of the money in the trouser pocket.He also asked him to place some letters,papers,the ivory-box and the tongs on the table. 

Q. 8 Who was Culverton Smith ? Why did Holmes want him for the treatment of his disease? 
Ans. Culverton Smith was a planter ho carried his business of plantation in Sumatra. But at the time of his incident  he was lived in London. Holmes wanted him for the treatment of his illness because he knew that Smith was well known to that disease. But in fact,he wanted to bring Smith in his trap. 

Q. 9 What did Holmes ask Watson to say to Mr. Smith ? 
Ans. Holmes asked Watson to tell Mr. Smith that his condition was very serious and he wanted him to cure him. 

Q. 10 Did Smith welcome Watson calling on him? How do you know? 
Ans. Smith did not welcome Watson  calling  on him. We knew it as he had asked his butler to tell Watson that he was not at home. 

Q.11 Why did Watson not come back with Smith? 
Ans. Watson did not come back with Smith because Holmes had asked him not to do so. Watson pretended that he had some other appointment. 

Q.12 What did Smith ask Watson when he finally met him? 
Ans. When Smith finally met Watson he asked if he had come from Holmes. Then he asked him how Holmes was. 

Q.13 Did Smith go near Holmes to examine him? How do you know? 
Ans. Smith did not go near Holmes to examine him. He did not go near because he himself had hatched a conspiracy against his life. But he went near Holmes to give him some water. 

Q.14 Who was Victor Smith? What had happened to him and how? 
Ans. Victor Smith was the nephew of Culverton Smith. He had been murdered by Culverton Smith with a poisonous spring. 

Q.15 “You did it. I’ll forget everything,” Holmes said to Smith. What did Smith do and how? Did Holmes really mean what he said? Give example in support of your answer. 
Ans. Smith had hatched a conspiracy against the life of Sherlock Holmes. He had done it by sending him a contaminated spring by post. Holmes did not mean what he said. Holmes was not ill at all. He was pretending to be ill to expose conspiracy hatched by Smith. 

Q.16 Why  did Smith send an infected sharp spring in an ivory box? 
Ans. Smith sent an infected sharp in ivory box to kill Sherlock Holmes because later Holmes knew that Smith  was the killer of his nephew, Victor Smith. 

Q.17 Why did Holmes ask Smith to turn up the gas? 
Ans. Holmes asked Smith to turn up the gas because he wanted to send a signal to inspector Morton to come in and arrest Smith. 

Q. 18 Who arrested Smith? What were the charges against him? 
Ans. Inspector Morton arrested Smith. He was charged with the murder of his nephew Victor. He was also charged with attempting to kill Sherlock Holmes. 

Q. 19 Why did Holmes pretend to be ill? What did he do and say to appear ill? 
Ans. Holmes pretended to be ill because he wanted to expose the conspiracy of Mr. Smith. To look ill, he drank nothing for three days. To look weak and seriously ill, he applied some make up. He talked deliriously all this time. 

Q. 20 Should Holmes have spoken so rudely to Watson? Why? 
Ans. Holmes should not have spoken rudely to Watson. After all Watson was his friend and assistant and did not deserve such rudeness from Holmes. But he had to speak to him in this marrer to make his illness a reality. 
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Class X Supplementary Reader 
Lesson-6 
(The Stolen Bacillus ) 

Q. 1 What was the Bacteriologist experimenting on? 
Ans. The bacteriologist was experimenting on some special species of bacterium which could cause blue patches on the body of birds and animals. 

Q. 2 Who came to see him and why? 
Ans. A pale faced man came to see him. He was an anarchist. He came there to steal some deadly bacterium to cause devastation in the city of London. 

Q. 3 Did the Bacteriologist trust him and why? 
Ans. Yes, the Bacteriologist trusted him. He trusted him because the anarchist had a forged letter from one of his friends. 

Q. 4 Had the visitor seen any microbes before? How do you know? 
Ans. The visitor had never seen the microbes before. Microbes can be seen only under a microscope and the visitor did not know how to use a microscope. 

Q. 5 Who knocked at the door gently? What did the Bacteriologist do then? 
Ans. The door was knocked by Minni, the wife of Bacteriologist. Then he went to open the door. 

Q. 6 What happened when the visitor left? 
Ans. After the visitor left, a disturbing thought came to bacteriologist’s mind. He felt that the visitor had taken away something dangerous from the laboratory. 

Q. 7 Did the Bacteriologist leave the house in a hurry? Give reasons in support of your answer. 
Ans. Yes, the Bacteriologist left the house in a hurry. He was without his hat, coat and shoes. This shows that he left the house in a hurry. 

Q. 8 Who saw the Bacteriologist running towards the street? 
Ans. Minni, the Bacteriologist’s wife saw him running towards the street. 

Q. 9 What did his wife do then? 
Ans. When his wife saw him running towards the street, she picked up his shoes, hat and overcoat and chased her husband in a cab. 

Q. 10 Was the visitor nervous? Was he in a hurry? Support your answer with examples. 
Ans. Yes, the visitor was nervous and in a hurry. When he saw the bacteriologist coming near him, he became afraid of being caught. He paid the cabman extra money and asked him to drive his cab faster. 

Q. 11 Why did the tube break? What did the visitor do then? 
Ans. The cab was running very fast. The anarchist was holding the little tube tightly in his hand. As he was trying to keep his balance in the cab, suddenly the tube broke. The broken half of the tube fell on the floor of the cab with its moisture. The other half of the tube was in his hand. He drank the moisture which was left in this half. 

Q. 12 Why did he leave the cab and look at the Bacteriologist in defiance? 
Ans. The anarchist left the cab and looked at the Bacteriologist in defiance because now he was no longer afraid of the Bacteriologist. He had already released the deadly cholera bacillus by drinking the moisture of the tube. 

Q. 13 What did he say to the bacteriologist? 
Ans. He said that the Bacteriologist was too late to reach him because he had already drunk the liquid from the tube. According to him, thus, the cholera was abroad then. 

Q. 14 What did Minnie ask her husband when she came out of the cab? 
Ans. Minnie was convinced that her husband had gone mad. She asked him to put on his coat, hat and shoes. 

Q. 15 Why did the Bacteriologist look relieved? 
Ans. The Bacteriologist felt relieved because the anarchist did not succeed in discharging the bacterium in the water reservoir of the city. He had swallowed them himself. 

Q. 16 What did the new species of bacterium cause? 
Ans. The new species of bacterium causes blue patches upon monkeys and other animals and birds. But what were its effects on human beings were still to be seen. 

Q. 17 What did the Bacteriologist tell his wife? 
Ans. The Bacteriologist told his wife that the man who had come o his laboratory to see him was an anarchist. He had not known it before, he ran away with the cultivation of new species of bacterium. It could cause blue patches upon various animals and birds. But he wrongly told the anarchist that it could cause cholera. 


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Class X 
Supplementary Reader 
Lesson 7 
(How Much Land Does a Man Need) 


Q. 1 What did the two women discuss? Were they related to each other? 
Ans. The two women discussed about town life and village life. They were real sisters. 

Q. 2 What did one woman say in defence of rural life? 
Ans. One woman said that rural life might be rough, but it was free from all worries. Though villagers grew never rich yet they had always enough to eat. 

Q. 3 Pakhom listened to the women’s chatter. He started brooding and reached a conclusion. What was the conclusion? 
Ans. Pakhom reached at this conclusion that he would busy land. He thought that if he would have plenty of land, he would not fear the Devil himself. 

Q. 4 When the Devil heard Pakhom’s musings, what did he decide? 
Ans. When the Devil heard Pakhom’s musings, he decided to give him enough land and get him into his power. 

Q. 5 The estate-owner on whose land Pakhom was tenant sold her land. Who bought the land? 
Ans. Out of that 50 acres were bought by one of Pakhom’s neighbours. Pakhom also bought 40 acres from that land. 

Q. 6 How did Pakhom manage to put together the money for buying the land? 
Ans. Pakhom had one hundred roubles laid by. He sold a colt and one half of his bees. He hired out one of his sons as a labour and took his wages in advance. He borrowed some of the money from his brother-in-law. Thus he managed to put together half of the rice in cah. He undertook to pay the remainder within two years. 

Q. 7 Pakhom met a stranger one day. Who was this stranger? What information did he give to Pakhom? 
Ans. This stranger was a farmer who had come from beyond the river Volga. He informed Pakhom that the land was so fertile there that the rye sown on it grew as high as horse. 

Q. 8 A trader told Pakhom something about the land of Bashkirs. What was it? 
Ans. The trader told Pakhom that the Bashkirs had plenty of land near the river. The land was very fertile and they sold it at a very low rate. He himself had purchased thirteen thousand acres of land for only one thousand roubles. 

Q. 9 Who were the Bashkirs? How did Pakhom make friends with them? 
Ans. The Bashkirs lived far away near the river. They were simple people. They had plenty of land. They were selling the land at a very low rate. Pakhom made friends with them by giving them some gifts. 

Q. 10 Bashkirs wanted to repay Pakhom for his gifts. What did Pakhom want from them? 
Ans. As a repayment of his gifts, Pakhom wanted to buy some of their land from the Bashkirs. 

Q. 11 ‘Our price is always the same; one thousand roubles a day’, the chief said. What did he mean? 
Ans.  The chief wanted to say that they did not sell their land by acres. They sold it by the day. It meant that one could have for one thousand roubles as much land as one would go round on his feet in one day. 

Q. 12 On what condition did the chief agree to sell land to Pakhom? 
Ans. The chief told Pakhom that by paying one thousand roubles he could get as much land as he could walk round in a day. But there was one condition. He had to complete the circuit by sun set. It meant that he had to come back to the same spot by sunset from which he had started. If he could not do so, his money would be forfeited. 

Q. 13 What is the moral of the Story? 
Ans. This story teaches us that greediness is a curse. It brings ruin for man. 

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Class X 
Supplementary Reader  
Lesson 8 ( Return to Air) 


Q. 1 Why was the boy called ‘Sausage’? 
Ans. The boy was quite fat and plump. That was why he was called Sausage. 

Q. 2 Why did the boy not like diving? 
Ans. The boy had weak eyesight. He could not see properly without his glasses. He had to take off his glasses for diving. Therefore, he did not like diving. 

Q. 3 What is duck-diving ? How is it taught? 
Ans. Duck-diving means diving into water in the manner of a duck. A brick is thrown into water and the learner is asked to bring it out. In this way duck-diving is taught. 

Q. 4 What happened to Sausage when he tried duck-diving the first time? 
Ans. Sausage had to remove his glasses for diving. He could not see properly inside the water. Instead of the brick, he brought out an old tin-box from the bottom. 

Q. 5 Why couldn’t Sausage see inside the water? 
Ans. Sausage had weak eyesight and had to wear glasses. But for diving he had to remove his glasses. That was why he couldn’t see properly inside the water. 

Q. 6 Why did the water change colours? How did it change colours? 
Ans. The water changed colours because the intensity of sunlight decreased gradually underwater. The water changed from thick green to brown lemonade and then to blackish-brown. 

Q. 7 Was Sausage sure that he would not come out alive ? Give examples to support your answer. 
Ans. Sausage had been underwater for a long time. He was about to lose his breath. Although he started going up quickly, he thought he would not come out alive. 

Q. 8 What did Sausage dig out? Did he know what he had caught hold of when he was inside the water ? Why ? 
Ans. He dug out an old tin-box. But he did not know what it was. He had weak eyesight and could not see properly without his glasses. 

Q. 9 Where did Sausage reach while swimming ? 
Ans. While swimming, he reached the other end of the pond. 

Q. 10 What did Sausage do with the tin-box ? 
Ans. He took the tin-box to his home. He placed it on the mantelpiece. He put his coin-collection in it. He wanted to keep it as long as he lived. 

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Class X 
Supplementary Reader  
Lesson 9 (Terry’s Tree) 


Q. 1 Who was Mick and where did he work ? 
Ans. Mick was a friend of Terry’s brother. He worked for Mr. Garrod. 

Q. 2 Why did the boys take Terry to the plantation ? 
Ans. Terry had never seen a Christmas tree growing. Therefore, the boys took him to a plantation where a number of Christmas trees were growing. 

Q. 3 Whose Christmas trees were they ? 
Ans. They belonged to Mr. Bosworth. 

Q. 4 Why did the boys go to see the trees again ? 
Ans. Terry wanted to see the trees again. He also wanted to hang a silver coloured   bail on the tree he had chosen. Therefore ,the boys went there again. 

Q. 5 What did Terry take with him to tie on the tree ? Who gave it to him ? 
Ans. Terry took a glass ball with him. It was all silver with red and blue flowers on it. His sister Sandra gave it to him. 

Q. 6 What did the boys plan to do a few days before Christmas ? 
Ans. Terry had chosen a Christmas tree for himself at Mr.Bosworth’s farm. The boys planned to dig up this tree for him before Christmas. 

Q. 7 Did the boys want to take the permission of  the planter ? How do you know ? 
Ans. The boys did want to take the permission of the planter. Bob had asked Mick to talk to the planter through Mr.Garrod. 

Q. 8 Why did Chris drive the boys to the plantation ? 
Ans. Mick had gone to Kingston with his boss. No other boy except Chris knew driving. That was why Chris drove the boys to the plantation. 

Q. 9 Who were the two men who saw the boys near the trees ? What did they think of the boys ? 
Ans. The two men were Mr. Bosworth and a policeman. They thought that the boys had been stealing Christmas trees from the plantation.

Q. 10 Why did the policeman want to please Terry? What did he say to Terry ? 
Ans. The Christmas tree that Terry wanted to have was gone. He was crying bitterly. That was why the policeman wanted to please him. He said he knew where the tree was. 

Q. 11 Did Terry believe the policeman ? What did he do then ? 
Ans. Yes, Terry believed the cop. He stopped crying and asked the cop where his tree was. 

Q. 12 What did the policeman say to the boys ? Did he stick to his words ? 
Ans.The policeman told the boys that they all appeared quite honest. But his would have to check up and talk to their fathers. He also said that he would try to help them. And he did stick to his words. 

Q. 13 How long had the boys to take Terry to see the Christmas tree ? Did they like it ? How do you know ? 
Ans. The boys had to take Terry to see the Christmas tree for two weeks. But they did not like it. By the end of the fortnight, they were sick of the sight of the tree. 

Q. 14 What did Terry want when the Christmas tree was removed ? Did he get it ? 
Ans. After the Christmas tree was removed, Terry wanted his silver coloured ball back. And he did get it. 

Q. 15 Was Terry a confident child ? Give examples to prove your point. 
Ans. The boys offered to carry Terry to Bosworth’s plantation. But Terry refused to be carried. He said that he was too big to be carried outside the house. It shows that Terry was a confident child. 


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Class X 
Supplementary Reader  
Lesson 10 (The Unexpected) 



Q. 1 Where did Mrs.Parker live? Who else lived with her ? 
Ans. Mrs.Parker lived in a cottage at Dartmoor. It was on the moors very near to the prison. She lived alone in the cottage. 

Q. 2 Who brought the news of the escape of the convicts? 
Ans. The two boys,Tom and Alec, brought this news to Mr.,Parker. 

Q. 3 Why was Mrs.Parker disturbed to hear the news? 
Ans. Mrs.Parker’s own son was in prison. She did not know if one of the escaped prisoners was her own son. That was why she was disturbed. 

Q. 4 How did the convicts escape the prison? 
Ans. The convicts had been taken to work outside the prison. Suddenly the mist came on. Two of the convicts took advantage of this and escaped. 

Q. 5 Why did Mrs.Parker want Alec and Tom to leave her house? 
Ans. Mrs.Parker was waiting for her son who could be one of the escaped prisoners. She did not want Alec and Tom to get into any trouble. That was why she wanted them to leave her house. 

Q. 6 Who was Joe? Why did he come to Mrs.Parker’s house ? 
Ans. Joe was a nephew of the village constable. He imagined himself to be a detective. He came to Mrs.Parker’s house to find out if the escaped convicts were hiding there. 

Q. 7 Why did Hoe suspect Mrs.Parker? 
Ans. Mrs.Parker lived alone in a cottage. Her cottage was very near to the prison. She never allowed anyone to stay in her cottage. And she had hidden a Bentley sports car in her shed. All these things led Joe to suspect Mrs.Parker. 

Q. 8 Why did Joe want to catch the convicts? 
Ans. Joe’s uncle was a constable. Joe too, wanted to join the police force. He hoped that by catching the convicts his chances of joining the police would become brighter. 

Q. 9 What advice did Mrs.Parker give to Joe? 
Ans. Mrs.Parker advised Joe to mind his own business. She said that he should stop reading silly detective stories. 

Q. 10 What did Mrs.Parker reveal to Alec and Tom? 
Ans. She told the boys that her son was falsely accused of forgery. He was sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. She had always wanted to help him escape. She hoped that one of the escaped convicts was her son. 

Q. 11 Who came after Joe had left? What did he do ? 
Ans. One of the convicts came there. He called Mrs.Parker mother. He said that the police was after him. Mrs.Parker asked him to go to the next room and change his clothes. 

Q. 12 Why did Joe come back? Who came while he was there ? 
Ans. Joe had seen a convict entering Mrs.Parker’s house. He wanted to catch him. That is why he came back. A warder came while he was there. In fact, he was Mrs.Parker’s son.

Q. 13 Was Joe an intelligent boy? Give reasons in support of your answer. 
Ans.Joe was not intelligent at all. He was foolish and boastful. He revealed the password that his uncle had told him. It helped the convicts to escape safely.

Q. 14 Who was actually the second convict? How did he manage to look like a warder? 
Ans. The second convict was actually Mrs.Parker’s son. He had hid himself behind a boulder. A warder came that way. The convict overcame the warder. He took off the warders clothes and wore them himself. Thus he managed to look like a warder. 

Q. 15 What did the two convicts do finally to escape? 
Ans. One of the convicts was disguised as a warder. He pretended to arrest the second one. He took him away in his Bentley sports car. 

Q. 16 Was Mrs.Parker a part of the plan? How do you know? 
Ans. Mrs.Parker was very much a part of the plan. She knew that his son was disguised as a warder. But she did not tell anything to anybody until both the convicts had escaped. 

Q. 17 Where was Mrs.Parker planning to go and with whom? 
Ans. She was planning to go to Australia. She knew that her son Roger would go to Australia after his escape. So she was planning to go there and join her son. 



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- Omeshwar Narayan -