Conjunctions

Conjunction - ਦੋ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ, ਵਾਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਹਿੱਸਿਆਂ ( Phrases ) ਜਾਂ ਵਾਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਸ ਵਿੱਚ ਜੋੜ੍ਹਨ ਵਾਲ੍ਹੇ ਸ਼ਬਦ ਨੂੰ Conjunction ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ | ਜਿਵੇਂ ;

1. The teacher taught Mohan and Abdul.
2. He needs some book or note-book.
3. She may take tea but I will take milk.
4. I will try to come as soon as I can.

Conjunctions are of three types;

1. Co-ordinate Conjunctions.
2. Correlative Conjunctions.
3. Subordinate Conjunctions.

1. Co-ordinate Conjunctions - 

ਇਕ ਸਮਾਨ ਸਥਿਤੀ ਵਾਲ੍ਹੇ ਅਤੇ ਸੁਤੰਤਰ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ/ ਵਾਕਾਂ / ਵਾਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਹਿੱਸਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਸ ਵਿੱਚ ਮਿਲਾਉਣ ਵਾਲ੍ਹੇ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ ਨੂੰ Co-ordinate Conjunction ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ ; ਜਿਵੇਂ -

1. Noun ਨੂੰ Noun ਨਾਲ    
                     
Mohan as well as Sohan came to my house. 

2. Verb ਨੂੰ Verb ਨਾਲ
                            
We worked and played together.

3. Adjective ਨੂੰ Adjective ਨਾਲ

He is sad but hopeful.

4. Adverb ਨੂੰ Adverb ਨਾਲ                   

He spoke loudly and clearly.

5. Phrase ਨੂੰ Phrase ਨਾਲ
                      
He met me in the bazaar and again at the bus stand.

6. Sentence ਨੂੰ Sentence ਨਾਲ              

He worked hard, yet he failed.


ਆਮ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ ਪ੍ਰਯੋਗ ਵਿੱਚ ਆਉਣ ਵਾਲ੍ਹੇ ਕੁਝ Co-ordinate Conjunctions ਹੇਠ ਲਿਖੇ ਹਨ - 

and, but, yet, for, or, nor, so , also, hence, however, otherwise, therefore.

Correlative Conjunction - ਜੋੜ੍ਹਿਆਂ ਦੇ ਰੂਪ ਵਿੱਚ ਪ੍ਰਯੋਗ ਹੋਣ ਵਾਲੇ conjunctions ਨੂੰ ਅਸੀਂ correlative conjunctions ਆਖਦੇ ਹਾਂ | ਜਿਵੇਂ :

1. He worked so hard that he fell ill.
2. He could neither sit nor stand.
3. He is both kind and honest.
4. Either Mohan or Sohan has done it.
5. She is not only proud but also mean.

ਆਮ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ ਪ੍ਰਯੋਗ ਵਿੱਚ ਆਉਣ ਵਾਲ੍ਹੇ ਕੁਝ correlative conjunctions ਹੇਠਾਂ ਲਿਖੇ ਹਨ ;

so......that
so.....as
as......so
as......as
neither.......nor
either.......or
both........and 
not only.......but also
no sooner......than
hardly.........when
scarcely.......when

Subordinate Conjunctions - ਜਿਹੜਾ ਸ਼ਬਦ ਇੱਕ ਜਾਂ ਇੱਕ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਧ ਆਸ਼੍ਰਿਤ (Subordinate )ਵਾਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਮੁੱਖ ( Principal ) ਵਾਕਾਂ ਨਾਲ ਜੋੜ੍ਹੇ , ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ Subordinate Conjunctions ਆਖਦੇ ਹਨ | ਜਿਵੇਂ ;


   Principal Clause                           Subordinate Clause

1. I don't think                                 if he would pass.
2. I know                                         why he has come here.
3. I was away                                  when Radha came here.
4. Tell me                                        where he lives.
5. He is the boy                               who beat my brother.


ਆਮ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ ਪ੍ਰਯੋਗ ਵਿੱਚ ਆਉਣ ਵਾਲ੍ਹੇ ਮੁੱਖ Subordinate Conjunctions ਹੇਠਾਂ ਲਿਖੇ ਹਨ ;
who, when, whom, where, whose, why, what, how, if, that, till, than, until, since, while, because, after, though, although, whether, whenever, wherever, whoever, as if, as though, so that, as soon as.

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Exercise - 1 

Ram would have helped her ( if ) he had enough money.
Wisdom is better ( than ) riches.
Sita had been waiting for two hours ( when ) the t rain arrived.
Many are called ( but ) few are chosen.
I ran fast, ( yet ) I missed the train.
I would rather suffer ( than ) apologize.
Wait ( until ) I come back.
Let us go to bed ( as ) it is twelve.
I would rather die (than ) tell a lie.
I like her ( because ) she is beautiful.

Exercise - 2

We eat ( so that ) we may live.
Men will reap ( what ) they sow.
He ran ( though ) he had been shot.
He is ( either) a rogue ( or ) a fool.
(As) you sow, ( so ) shall you reap.


Exercise - 3


If you start early, you will catch the train.
Although they batted badly, they won the match.
Their house is small, still it is comfortable.
If you sign these papers, you'll get the loan.
Unless you tell me the truth, I shall punish you.


Exercise - 4


I would have gone to the party (If) I had been invited.
She went to the doctor (so that ) she might be cured.
I shall wait for you ( until ) you return.
She is a fine player (although ) she is so small.
The teacher punished him ( as ) he had broken the window pane.




Exercise - 5


She is beautiful ( but ) not vain.
Though he is poor,(yet) he is honest.
He is neither an idler( nor ) a gambler.
He had scarcely reached the school (when ) it began to rain.
A month has passed(since) he came here.
Give me water to drink (or ) I shall die of thirst.
She is a fine player ( though ) she is so small.
I was so tired ( that ) I at once fell asleep.
Make hay ( while ) the sun shines.
He is neither hard-working ( nor ) intelligent.


Exercise  - 7


Take an umbrella as it may rain.
Do not go out in this rain or you may catch cold.
Work hard or you will fail.
As it was raining hard, I stayed at home.
I eat when I am hungry.
I must believe it because you say so.
Though he is very poor , he is contented.
I am going to Delhi where I expect a merry time.
As I did not listen to him, I failed badly.
If you work hard, you will succeed.


Exercise - 8


He tried hard ( but ) could not succeed.
He will no come ( if ) you do not invite him.
He had died ( before ) the doctor came.
You will be late ( unless ) you hurry up.
You must see me ( before ) you leave for Delhi.
He worked hard ( yet ) he failed.
He is as clever ( as ) his father.
Though he is my friend, I will not help him in this matter.